Preamble For several years now, a practice of violating workers' rights to just and prompt remuneration, unprecedented in modern history, has been in existence in the Russian Federation. Public employees, and education personnel who constitute the largest part of the sector, are the first to suffer. A practice of non-payment of wages which becomes permanent is not only a blatant violation of the national legislation but also of international norms and, in particular, of the ILO Convention on the Protection of Wages (95), ratified by the Russian Federation. An ILO Committee, specially established to examine this matter, has made a strong statement to this effect. The Second World Congress of Education International, meeting in Washington D.C., U.S.A., from 25 to 29 July 1998: 1. Deplores most decisively the possibility of the existence of such practices in general; 2. Expresses pride in its colleagues in Russia, who, under these extreme conditions, continue to carry out their professional obligations at a high standard to educate future generations in the country; 3. Completely supports the just demands of the Education and Science Employees' Union of Russia and its firm stance to defend the interests of union members and national education in general; 4. Believes that the Russian union, with the support of Education International, its affiliated organisations and the International Labour Organisation, will be able to change the situation so that basic human rights are implemented.